From All Birds Wiki

Temporal range: Early CretaceousHolocene, 120–0 Ma [1]
Greater rhea (Rhea americana)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Infraclass: Palaeognathae
Clade: Notopalaeognathae
Yuri et. al, 2013

Notopalaeognathae is a clade that contains the order Rheiformes (rheas), the clade Novaeratitae (birds such as the kiwis and the emus), the order Tinamiformes (tinamous) and the extinct order Dinornithiformes (the moas).[2] The exact relationships of this group have only recently been understood, with tinamous and the moas sharing a common ancestor[3][4][5][6] and the kiwis are more closely related to emus and cassowaries.[5] The extinct elephant birds of Madagascar had recently been identified as closest relative to the kiwis.[5] The rheas are either the basal most branch of notopalaeognaths[7] or the sister group to Novaeratitae.[2] The sister group to Notopalaeognathae is Struthionidae (the ostrich family).


  1. ^ Van Tuinen M. (2009) Birds (Aves). In The Timetree of Life, Hedges SB, Kumar S (eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press; 409–411.
  2. ^ a b Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and model-based analyses of indels in avian nuclear genes reveal congruent and incongruent phylogenetic signals". Biology. MDPI. 2 (1): 419–44. doi:10.3390/biology2010419.
  3. ^ Phillips MJ, Gibb GC, Crimp EA, Penny D (January 2010). "Tinamous and moa flock together: mitochondrial genome sequence analysis reveals independent losses of flight among ratites". Systematic Biology. 59 (1): 90–107. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syp079. PMID 20525622.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. ^ Allentoft, M. E.; Rawlence, N. J. (2012-01-20). "Moa's Ark or volant ghosts of Gondwana? Insights from nineteen years of ancient DNA research on the extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) of New Zealand". Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 194: 36–51. doi:10.1016/j.aanat.2011.04.002. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  5. ^ a b c Mitchell, K. J.; Llamas, B.; Soubrier, J.; Rawlence, N. J.; Worthy, T. H.; Wood, J.; Lee, M. S. Y.; Cooper, A. (2014-05-23). "Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwis are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution". Science. 344 (6186): 898–900. doi:10.1126/science.1251981. PMID 24855267. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  6. ^ Baker, A. J.; Haddrath, O.; McPherson, J. D.; Cloutier, A. (2014). "Genomic Support for a Moa-Tinamou Clade and Adaptive Morphological Convergence in Flightless Ratites". Molecular Biology and Evolution. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu153. {{cite journal}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  7. ^ Hackett, S.J. et al. (2008) A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History. Science, 320, 1763.
This article is part of Project Bird Taxonomy, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on every order, family and other taxonomic rank related to birds.