Rock Pigeon

From All Birds Wiki
Rock Pigeon[1]
File:Pigeon portrait.png
A pigeon portrait
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Superorder: Columbimorphae
Order: Columbiformes
Family: Columbidae
Genus: Columba
Species: C. livia
Binomial name
Columba livia
Gmelin, 1789[3]
Synonyms
Click for other names
Other common names Feral Pigeon, Racing Pigeon, Domestic Pigeon, Rock Dove

Rock Pigeon, Columba livia (col-UM-bah LIE-vih-ah;[4] genus name from Latin, a pigeon or dove; species name: from Latin, blue, blue-grey, or lead-coloured, in reference to its largely bluish plumage,[4]) also known as the Feral Pigeon are among the most familiar birds known to city dwellers.[5] They are native to Eurasia, being introduced to North America, Australia and South America.

Description[edit]

This highly variable city pigeon is familiar to all urban dwellers. Multicoloured birds were developed over centuries of near domestication.[6] Heavy-bodied, broad-shouldered, short-tailed pigeon with a relatively short neck and short stubby bill. Folded wings fall just short of the tail tip, but primary extension past tertials very long (which are longer than tail length).[7]

The sexes are similar, but females have less iridescence on neck and breast.[7] Adult males are metallic green and purple iridescence on neck and breast; iris orange to red; orbital skin blue-grey, and feet are dark red.[6] Adult females are like males, but iridescence more restricted and subdued.[6]

Because of being domesticated, the colours of the birds are variable, from all white to all black.[7] Most often dark grey head; iridescent neck and breast; pale grey back; two dark wingbars formed by dark tips to secondaries and dark bases to greater coverts and tertials.[7]

Has hybridised with the Band-tailed Pigeon[7] as well as Mourning Dove and many Old World pigeons and doves.[8][4]

Similar species[edit]

Some Rock Pigeons can be black, resembling the White-crowned Pigeon, but will normally show white on rump and lack the white crown.[6]

Rock Pigeon differs from Scaly-naped Pigeon in having a darker neck than body, grey upperparts, white rump and black bars on upperwing.[9]

Red-billed Pigeon, Band-tailed Pigeon lacks a white rump as well.[9]

Mourning Doves are much smaller, have a long pointed tail, and lacks white rump.[9]

Stock Doves are smaller, with grey underwings, vs the larger white underwings of the Rock Pigeon; smaller black wing patches and blue-grey rump.[10]

Common Woodpigeon is larger than the Rock Pigeon, with a proportionally somewhat longer tail and smaller head, appears fuller-breasted but nonetheless is more elongated.[10]

Behaviour[edit]

Rock Pigeons are intelligent birds, being able to discriminate between Monet, Renoir, Cezzane, Braque, Matisse and Picasso's paintings.[11] They can also identify the Peanuts character Charlie Brown.[12]

It is one of the swiftest birds in flight, being clocked in Britain and France at 28–82 mph (45–132 km/h);[13] and up to 82–94.3 mph (132.0–151.8 km/h).[14][4]

Diet[edit]

Calls[edit]

Low pitched, gurgling cucucurooo.[7]

Reproduction[edit]

Distribution/habitat[edit]

Native to Eurasia, where they inhabit rocky sea coasts and desert canyons.[5]

Also found in cities, parks, farms, bridges and cliffs.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John, Boyd. "Columbidae". jboyd.net. Retrieved 10-26-2021. {{cite web}}: Check date values in: |access-date= (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Columba livia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 16 July 2012. {{cite web}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  3. ^ "Columba livia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
  4. ^ a b c d Terres, John K. (1980). The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0394466519.
  5. ^ a b Foreshaw, Joseph; Howell, Steve; Lindsey, Terence and Stallcup, Rich (1994). A Guide to Birding. Fog City Press. ISBN 1877019348.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ a b c d Dunn, Jon L. and Alderfer, Jonathan (2011). National Geographic Completely Birds of North America. National Geographic Society. ISBN 9781426213731.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Stokes, Donald W. and Stokes, Lilian Q. (2010). Stokes Field Guide to the Birds of North America. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 9770316010504. {{cite book}}: Check |isbn= value: invalid prefix (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. ^ Gray, A.P., 1958. Bird hybrids, Tech. Communication no. 13. London: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux
  9. ^ a b c Alsop III, Fred J. (2001). Smithsonian Handbooks Birds of North America. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0789480018.
  10. ^ a b Mullarney, Killian (1999). Birds of Europe. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691050538. {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |coauthor= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  11. ^ Watanabe, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Junko; Wakita, Masumi (1995). "Pigeon's discrimination of paintings by Monet and Picasso" (PDF). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior. 63: 165–174. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
  12. ^ Cerella, John (1980). "The pigeon's analysis of pictures". Pattern Recognition. 12 (1). doi:10.1016/0031-3203(80)90048-5. Retrieved 27 January 2013. {{cite journal}}: Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  13. ^ Riviere, B.B., 1922. Speed of the domestic pigeon. Brit. Birds. 15:298
  14. ^ Meinertzhagen, R., 1955. The speed and altitude of bird flight. Ibis 97:81-117

External links[edit]

Projects

<fb:like/>

File:Paw 1.png This article is part of Project Aves, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each bird, including made-up species.
File:Rock Pigeon.png This article is part of Project Columbiformes, a All Birds project that aims to write comprehensive articles on each pigeon and dove, including made-up species.